Ebene News – UA – ‘Brave Pharaoh’ who went to war over loud hippos executed on battlefield, CT scans reveal

The war wasn’t just about the hippos: “Seqenenre was really on the front line with his soldiers risking his life to liberate Egypt”

Researchers have uncovered new details about the brutal execution of an Egyptian pharaoh who went into battle amid an argument over loud hippos – and inspired his children to free their nation

The study, published in the journal Frontiers in Medicine, used computed tomography (CT) scans to examine the mummy of Pharaoh Seqenenre-Taa-II, giving rise to a new theory about the circumstances of his death

“Seqenenre was really on the front lines with his soldiers risking his life to liberate Egypt,” lead author Dr Sahar Saleem, professor of radiology at Cairo University, told the Frontier News blog

Saleem and co-author Zahi Hawass, an archaeologist and former Egyptian Minister of Antiquities, were the first to use CT scans to study pharaohs and warriors, reports the Frontiers press blog. They Used Medical Imaging, who can non-invasively determine gender, age and cause of death, to examine Hatshepsut, Tutankhamun, Ramses III, Thutmose III, Ramses II and now Seqenenre, who was around 40 when he died This is the first time researchers have uncovered evidence of a pharaoh on the front lines of a battle

Pharaoh Seqenenre, also known as the “Brave”, ruled southern Egypt for just a few years, from 1558 to 1553 BC. At the time, an alien dynasty known as the Hyksos had occupied northern Egypt for about a century, with the capital located at Avaris (modern Tell el Dabaa) in the Nile Delta region. While the Egyptian pharaoh controlled the south, all of Egypt was required to send a tribute to King Hyksos

According to fragments of ancient papyrus documents, a fight broke out between Pharaoh and Apophis, king of Hyksos, when the latter sent a message complaining about loud hippos disturbing his sleep The hippos in question were occupying a swimming pool in Thebes in southern Egypt, while Apophis occupied Avaris – 644 kilometers away

Apophis demanded that Seqenenre destroy the sacred Theban basin – a grave insult to the pharaoh As the end of the papyrus is lost, the remaining part ends with Seqenenre calling his advisers, suggesting that he was planning to go fight for the hippo dispute War broke out between the two nations and Seqenenre came to a violent end

The pharaoh’s mummy was first discovered in 1886, and since then researchers have debated the cause and circumstances of his death.When the mummy was examined and then x-rayed in the 1960s, the body had multiple head injuries, but no other injuries This led to the prevailing theory that the pharaoh was captured in battle and later executed, possibly by King Hyksos himself; while others have speculated that he could have been murdered in his sleep as part of a palace coup

Researchers also believed Seqenenre was hastily mummified, possibly on the battlefield, away from the royal mummification workshop as the body was not well preserved

CT scans confirmed the mummy’s poor condition His head and several of his bones were completely detached But the scans also revealed previously undetected head injuries that had been masterfully concealed during the mummification process, a procedure cosmetic that suggests her body was brought to the royal workshop after all

The researchers found that the mummy’s brain was on the left side of its skull, suggesting that the body was lying on its left side long enough for decomposition to have already started before the mummification process could begin. This would explain why the mummy was poorly preserved, despite the best efforts of the embalmer

Most of the royal mummies of ancient Egypt have their arms crossed over their chest, but Seqenenre’s arms are by his side, his hands are flexed at the wrist, and his fingers are contorted All of this suggests that the pharaoh’s hands are were bound behind him when he died and became rigid immediately after his execution due to a condition called cadaveric spasm, the researchers write

Researchers believe Seqenenre was captured on the battlefield, tied up and killed, and was likely kneeling during part of the attack Multiple head wounds inflicted with what appears to be multiple weapons different, suggest that there were several attackers

“In a normal execution on a tied up prisoner, one would assume that a single assailant would strike, perhaps from different angles but not with different weapons,” Saleem told the Frontier press blog “Seqenenre’s death was more of a ceremonial execution”

The first blow was probably to the forehead, and may have been inflicted by a sword or an ax, researchers write

“The heavy blow must have knocked the king down, possibly on his back The king may have received several attacks from the assailant with the Hyksos battle ax, possibly using his blade to inflict the fracture on the- above the right eyebrow (right supraorbital) Then a thick stick (possibly the ax handle) was used to crush the nose and the right eye of the king The attacker hit the left side of the king’s face with the ax, ”says the study

“Another assailant on the left side used a lance horizontally to pierce the lower part of the left ear (mastoid) deeply and reached the foramen magnum We assume the king was dead by this point, and his body was rolled to lie on its left side where it received several blows on the right side of the skull possibly by a dagger”

There are no written accounts of Seqenenre’s death, but historical records indicate that his sacrifice was ultimately not in vain While his first son, Kamose, also died in battle against the Hyksos, his second son, Ahmose, succeeded in completely expelling the foreign occupiers and unifying Egypt

“Seqenenre’s death motivated his successors to continue the fight to unify Egypt and launch the New Kingdom,” Saleem said

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Ebene News – UA – “Brave pharaoh” who went to war for loud hippos was executed on the field of battle, CT scan reveal

Source: https://nationalpost.com/news/world/brave-pharaoh-who-went-to-war-over-noisy-hippos-was-executed-on-the-battlefield-ct-scans-reveal